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802.11 Standards

IEEE 802.11 PHY Standards Cheat Sheet

Every once in a while there are new IEEE 802.11 Standards, this time there were 3!  802.11ay, 802.11az and 802.11ba:

  • IEEE 802.11ay: Successor of 802.11ad with higher transmisson rates and extended transmission distance.
  • IEEE 802.11az: Called Next Generation Positioning (NGP), looks at ways to improve the location and positioning of users.
  • IEEE 802.11ba: Known as “Wake-Up Radio” (WUR), aimed at extending the battery life of devices and sensors within an Internet of Things network.

Now publicly available IEEE Std 802.11™-2016 was a reason to take another look at the 802.11 standards.

IEEE 802.11 PHY Standards cheat sheet:

802.11 Cheat Sheet
IEEE PHY 802.11 Standards Cheat Sheet

IEEE Std 802.11™: The original standard was published in 1997, revised in 1999 with MIB changes, and reaffirmed in 2003.

IEEE Std 802.11™-2007: A revision was published in 2007, which incorporated into the 1999 edition the following amendments:
— IEEE Std 802.11a™-1999: High-speed Physical Layer in the 5 GHz Band
— IEEE Std 802.11b™-1999: Higher-Speed Physical Layer Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band
— IEEE Std 802.11b-1999/Corrigendum 1-2001: Higher-speed Physical Layer (PHY) extension in the 2.4 GHz band
— IEEE Std 802.11d™-2001: Specification for operation in additional regulatory domains
— IEEE Std 802.11g™-2003: Further Higher Data Rate Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band
— IEEE Std 802.11h™-2003: Spectrum and Transmit Power Management Extensions in the 5 GHz band in Europe
— IEEE Std 802.11i™-2004: Medium Access Control (MAC) Security Enhancements
— IEEE Std 802.11j™-2004: 4.9 GHz–5 GHz Operation in Japan
— IEEE Std 802.11e™-2005: Medium Access Control (MAC) Quality of Service Enhancements

IEEE Std 802.11™-2012: This revision was published in 2012, which incorporated into the 2007 revision the following amendments:
— IEEE Std 802.11k™-2008: Radio Resource Measurement of Wireless LANs
— IEEE Std 802.11r™-2008: Fast Basic Service Set (BSS) Transition
— IEEE Std 802.11y™-2008: 3650–3700 MHz Operation in USA
— IEEE Std 802.11w™-2009: Protected Management Frames
— IEEE Std 802.11n™-2009: Enhancements for Higher Throughput
— IEEE Std 802.11p™-2010: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments
— IEEE Std 802.11z™-2010: Extensions to Direct-Link Setup (DLS)
— IEEE Std 802.11v™-2011: Wireless Network Management
— IEEE Std 802.11u™-2011: Interworking with External Networks
— IEEE Std 802.11s™-2011: Mesh Networking

IEEE Std 802.11™-2016: This revision is based on IEEE Std 802.11-2012, into which the following amendments have been incorporated:
— IEEE Std 802.11ae™-2012: Prioritization of Management Frames
— IEEE Std 802.11aa™-2012: MAC Enhancements for Robust Audio Video Streaming
— IEEE Std 802.11ad™-2012: Enhancements for Very High Throughput in the 60 GHz Band
— IEEE Std 802.11ac™-2013: Enhancements for Very High Throughput for Operation in Bands below 6 GHz
— IEEE Std 802.11af™-2013: Television White Spaces (TVWS) Operation

Sources:

IEEE Std 802.11™-2016
CWNA® Certified Wireless Network Administrator Official Study Guide Fourth Edition
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11

Alcatel-Lucent 8068 Deskphone User Guide on OXO

OxO – Alcatel-Lucent 8068 Deskphone User Guide –

A video user guide of features and abilities of the Alcatel-Lucent 8068 deskphone deployed on the OXO system.

VoIP capable, Other Features include:

  • 240 x 320 pixel 1/4 VGA, 16.7 M coloros with back light.
  • Up to 40 soft keys (multiple screens).
  • Alphabetical keyboard
  • Bi-directional navigation key for simplified feature access and scrolling
  • Full duplex speakerphone with acoustic echo cancellation
  • Comfort headset
  • Optional Bluetooth Headset
  • Two 10/100/1000 layer 2 ports
  • SIP standalone option
  • Headset connector
  • Multiple language support
  • IEEE 802.3af Power over Ethernet or optional external power supply

Alcatel-Lucent 8028/8029 Deskphone User Guide on OXO

OxO – Alcatel-Lucent 8028/8029 Deskphone User Guide –

A video user guide of features and abilities of the Alcatel-Lucent 8028/8029 Deskphone deployed on the OXO system.

8028 Features include:

  • offers rich VoIP communications
  • outstanding wide-band audio quality
  • 64×128 pixel black and white display with back light.
  • Up to 68 soft keys (multiple screens)
  • Alphabetical keyboard
  • Bi-directional navigation key for simplified feature access and scrolling
  • Full duplex speakerphone with acoustic echo cancellation
  • Comfort headset
  • Two 10/100/1000 layer 2 ports
  • SIP standalone option
  • Headset connector
  • Multiple language support
  • IEEE 802.3af Power over Ethernet or optional external power supply

8029 Features include:

  • 64 x 128 pixel display with back light
  • rich digital communications
  • outstanding wide-band audio quality
  • 6 soft keys (multiple screens)
  • Alphabetical keyboard
  • Bi-directional navigation key for simplified feature access and scrolling
  • Full duplex speakerphone with acoustic echo cancellation
  • Comfort handset
  • Headset connector
  • Multiple language support

New York City Subway Offers Free Wi-Fi from Transit Wireless

New York City Subway riders benefit from free internet, thanks to Alcatel-Lucent OmniSwitch 6855 Hardened LAN Switch, operated by Transit Wireless. Contact us ti find out what the OmniSwitch 6855 Hardened LAN Switch can do for you.

CES 2018 Is Where You’ll Start Caring About 5G

Excerpted From CNet

At this year’s CES you’ll hear plenty of talk about driverless cars, connected homes and the internet of things. (Yes, we promise IoT, perhaps the buzziest of tech trends, is more than just hackable baby monitors and $400 internet-connected juicers.)

Here’s the technology that will drive all of those innovations over the next decade: 5G.

The shorthand tag “5G” stands for fifth-generation wireless technology. Those broadbandlike wireless speeds you’re getting on your phone now? That’s 4G technology. So just think about what happens next.

If you’re excited about the prospects, you aren’t alone. Tech observers see 5G as the foundation for a host of other trends. At last year’s CES, Qualcomm CEO Steve Mollenkopf described 5G as the biggest thing since the introduction of electricity.

Remember, a lot of work needs to be done for 5G to achieve broad scale. But with networks set to go live by 2019 and coverage reaching 20 percent of the population by 2023, now’s the time to start caring about it.

The lowdown on 5G

The brave new world of 5G isn’t just about speed. Sure, you can look forward to ridiculously high download speeds and bufferless 4K streaming. The real advantages, however, come down to three other things:

  1. Reliability: 5G doesn’t just deliver peak speeds in ideal conditions. The technology offers superhigh speeds that are reliable and consistent, even indoors or in congested areas.
  2. Bandwidth: 5G can support a massive increase in connected devices. Ericsson forecasts 1 billion 5G subscriptions by 2023. Think sensors on everything.
  3. Latency: Phones today have an annoying lag between when you send a request for a website or video and when the network responds. With 5G, that’ll be reduced to 1 millisecond. That’s 400 times faster than the blink of an eye. It’s so fast, some companies see it opening up the possibility of remote surgery.

Intel CEO Brian Krzanich is devoting his preshow keynote presentation to the data-driven future that 5G enables. Nokia and Ericsson will be on stage touting the new network technology. Gary Shapiro, CEO of the Consumer Technology Association, which runs CES, has already been hitting the media circuit to talk up the tech.

Benefits Of 5G Wireless

While 5G remains an imprecise term today, key objectives for the development of the advances required have become clear. These are as follows:

  • Enhanced throughput – As is the case with Wi-Fi, major advances in cellular are first and foremost defined by new upper-bound throughput numbers. The magic number here for 5G is in fact a floor of 1 Gbps, with numbers as high as 10 Gbps mentioned by some. However, and again as is the case with Wi-Fi, it’s important to think more in terms of overall individual-cell and system-wide capacity. We believe, then, that per-user throughput of 50 Mbps is a more reasonable – but clearly still remarkable – working assumption, with up to 300 Mbps peak throughput realized in some deployments over the next five years. The possibility of reaching higher throughput than that exceeds our planning horizon, but such is, well, possible.
  • Reduced latency – Perhaps even more important than throughput, though, is a reduction in the round-trip time for each packet. Reducing latency is important for voice, which will most certainly be all-IP in 5G implementations, video, and, again, in improving overall capacity. The over-the-air latency goal for 5G is less than 10ms, with 1ms possible in some defined classes of service.
  • Advances in management and OSS – Operators are always seeking to reduce overhead and operating expense, so enhancements to both system management and operational support systems (OSS) yielding improvements in reliability, availability, serviceability, resilience, consistency, analytics capabilities, and operational efficiency, are all expected. The benefits of these will, in most cases, however, be transparent to end-users.
  • Increased mobility – Very-high-speed user mobility, to as much as hundreds of kilometers per hour, will be supported, thus serving users on all modes of transportation. Regulatory and situation-dependent restrictions – most notably, on aircraft – however, will still apply.
  • Improved security – As security remains the one aspect of IT where no one is ever done, enhancements to encryption, authentication, and privacy are expected. It would not be surprising to see identity management (IDM) solutions along the lines of those now at work in many organizations available from at least a few carriers. Current IDM suppliers as well might be more than mildly interested in extending their capabilities to 5G services purchased by enterprises.
  • New spectrum – It is expected that frequencies in the so-called millimeter-wave bands above 30GHz will see service in at least some 5G deployments. Both licensed and unlicensed spectrum at these frequencies is available in many parts of the world. MM wave frequencies are often appropriate to small cells since they require smaller and less obtrusive antennas, and the inherent signal directionality can multiply spectral efficiency. The core disadvantages for MM waves are less applicability to traditional larger cells along with poor object (e.g., buildings) penetration, but such can again be advantages in terms of frequency reuse. Regardless, more spectrum is required given the throughput and capacity objectives that justify 5G development and deployment – present spectral allocations will most certainly not suffice even with the ability to aggregate smaller blocks of spectrum.
  • New enabling technologies – We expect to see higher-order MIMO implementations, sometimes described as “massive” with, for example, 16-64 streams, more aggressive modulation and channel coding, improved power-utilization efficiency, and related advances. Small cells will see frequent application, and the days of large cell towers may be numbered in more densely populated areas. Current trends otherwise at work in networks today, include SDN and NFV, will also see application in 5G, with much infrastructure implemented within cloud-based services. 5G will likely require no major advances in chip or manufacturing technologies, and device power consumption will likely benefit from more limited geographic range even as higher clock rates take a small toll here. Still, much work remains in terms of both technical and feasibility analysis as well as cost, but we see no showstoppers on the horizon. There is no danger of producing another WiMAX that offers marketing hype with no clear advantages over the previous generation, and the overall level of technical risk is low. Perhaps the greatest challenge is schedule slip, as the complex nature of the systems engineering that is required needs more time than many expect.
  • Universal application support – 5G as a wireline replacement will have to support every class of traffic and every conceivable device, from broadcast-quality video distribution to telemetry, implantable medical devices, augmented and virtual reality, and advanced interactivity and graphics – and not just for gaming. The list also includes connected and autonomous cars, remotely-piloted vehicles (drones), public safety, building and municipal automation/monitoring/control, and disaster relief. including relocatable infrastructure with moving cells and support for dynamic wireless meshing. Also in the mix are robotics and IoT devices tolerant of limited data throughput and highly-variable latency. We expect literally tens of billions of 5G devices to be deployed over the next decade or so, so the scale of both the challenge and the demand is clear.
  • Industry growth – Finally, carriers, operators, and equipment vendors of both infrastructure and subscriber devices simply require the deployment of new technologies with quantifiable end-user-visible benefits from time to time in order to continue to grow their businesses. New subscriber units alone cannot accomplish this goal.

In short, 5G is a business opportunity being designed and implemented to provide all of the communication capabilities and performance we expect from a wireline network. Getting to that point, given all of the requirements above, won’t be easy, quick, or inexpensive.

Enabling the Elastic Edge of Today’s Connected Enterprise

The Elastic Edge of today’s Connected Enterprise requires the wide-area network (WAN) to be more reliable, agile, scalable, automated and secure than ever. Cradlepoint’s software-defined network solutions enable the next-generation WAN for the Connected Enterprise.

Ramp up business communications for the digital era

Connected devices and the internet of things (IoT) – video, interactive screen, multimedia sharing, chat and bot interactions – are really what you need for the digital workplace.

  • Make communicating with your teams and your business contacts as simple as 1-2-3. Interact instantly.
  • Make the leap into the digital era and choose RainbowTM, the app for borderless, mobile collaboration that is fully integrated with your business phones.

Protect Your Business Continuity With ICON Signals

Telspan and ICON can help you protect your assets and prevent business disruptions by monitoring and alerting your facilities. Insurance can help replace some items after the fact, but that doesn’t cover the downtime, lost revenue or the frustration of getting your business back online. Even small disruptions in business continuity, from a blown fuse to a vandal on premises, from a water leak to a door being opened after hours, can snowball into a large disruptive force if left unchecked. ICON Cloud Solutions gives you the time to react and respond…time that is critical in dealing with a potentially expensive development.